Building a More Perfect Class


An improved method for creating new B/X character classes

In 2001, I wrote Building the Perfect Class to provide a consistent framework for building new D&D classes. The framework broke down each class into discrete abilities, each with a certain XP value; when summed, the total XP value was what you needed to advance. To assign the right XP value to each ability, I reverse engineered each of the Rules Cyclopedia classes, so the resulting framework ensures that new classes are on par with those in the rulebooks.

The original framework did what it was supposed to, but it was possible to “game” the system and create effective classes with very low XP requirements. It’s a munchkin ploy, but it bothered me, so I revisited the material in 2013 with an eye toward fixing this issue. The updated framework is below.

DISCLAIMER: Two items come to mind: First, a lot of people who want to customize classes are referred to Paul Montgomery Crabaugh’s article “Customized Classes” in DRAGON #109 (May, 1986). While Crabaugh’s material is well-suited to tweaking an existing class, his system does not allow you to build new classes that balance against those in the rulebooks. The framework below can be used both to customize existing classes and create new ones. Second, despite my best efforts, the magic-user continues to defy my OCD–I just can’t get his XP values to fit the pattern (though this revision is closer to the mark). All this is to say that while I may have puzzled out a way to assign consistent XP values to each class, this entire exercise is an example of making the facts fit my views, not the other way round; while the framework is solid and works pretty well, it’s not meant to explain or justify how the core classes were created.

Building A Class

Each class is described via 10 categories:

  1. Hit Dice: the die type used to roll hit points
  2. Saving Throw: the class’s saving throw table (X24)
  3. Attack: the class’s “to-hit” progression (X26)
  4. Armour: the class’s armour choices
  5. Weapons: the class’s weapon choices
  6. Spells: the class’s spell-casting ability
  7. Special Abilities: the class’s special abilities, not based on race
  8. Skills: the class’s learned skills, not based on race
  9. Weapon Mastery: the class’s weapon proficiency slots (from the Rules Cyclopedia)
  10. Level Limit: the class’s experience level ceiling

For each category, pick a value and record the corresponding XP cost. The total XP cost is the base XP required to earn 2nd-level.

Hit Dice

The die type used to roll hit points; assumes that hit points are rolled up to Name Level (9th), after which each level grants a static number of hit points and Constitution bonuses no longer apply.

  • d4 = 100XP
  • d6 = 200XP
  • d8 = 300XP
  • d10 = 400XP
  • d12 = 500XP

Saving Throw

The class’s saving throw table; this does not account for saving throw bonuses or penalties in special situations.

  • Cleric = 300XP
  • Dwarf / Halfling = 400XP
  • Elf = 200XP
  • Fighter = 100XP
  • Magic-user / Thief = 150XP


Demi-humans in Cook’s Expert rulebook use the same attack table as Fighters, though I’ve increased the XP value due to their ability to earn attack ranks at higher levels.

  • Cleric / Thief = 200XP
  • Demi-human = 400XP
  • Fighter = 300XP
  • Monster = 500XP
  • Magic-user = 100XP


  • Any armour type = 200XP
  • No armour allowed = 0XP
  • Restricted armour type(s) = 100XP


  • Any weapon type = 200XP
  • No weapons allowed = -100XP
  • Restricted weapon type(s) = 0XP


Fractions apply to the class’s level and indicate equivalent casting ability. For example, “Cleric 1/2” means that at 6th-level, the class casts as a 3rd-level Cleric.

  • Cleric = 400XP
  • Cleric 1/2 = 200XP
  • Cleric 1/3 = 150XP
  • Cleric 1/4 = 100XP
  • Magic-user = 1,600XP
  • Magic-user 1/2 = 800XP
  • Magic-user 1/3 = 600XP
  • Magic-user 1/4 = 400XP
  • No spells = 0XP

Special Abilities

These are “niche” capabilities, learned either as part of class training or inherent to racial type. Special Abilities are useful only in particular circumstances. Each Special Ability is worth 100XP. Examples include:

  • Cast Magic Spells in Armour
  • Detection (per item: secret doors, slanting passages, new construction, et al.)
  • Increased Movement (as mystic)
  • Infravision
  • Inherent Spell-casting
  • Initiative Bonus
  • Racial Language (per language)
  • Read Spell Scrolls
  • Special Attack (per attack: Backstab (as thief), Fighter Combat Options, Gentle Touch (as mystic), Lance Attack, Martial Arts (as mystic), Multiple Attacks, Set Spear vs. Charge, circumstantial “to-hit” bonus)
  • Special Defence (per defence: Hide (as Halfling), Immunity to ghoul paralysis (as elf), Incremental AC bonus (as mystic), Saving Throw bonus, circumstantial AC bonus)
  • Turn Undead


Skills are learned abilities that can be applied in a variety of circumstances. Each Skill is worth 50XP. Examples include:

  • Mystic skills (per skill: Acrobatics, Awareness, Blankout, Heal Self, Mind Block, Resistance)
  • Thief skills (per skill: Climb Walls, Find Traps, Hear Noise, Hide in Shadows, Move Silently, Open Locks, Pick Pockets, Remove Traps)
  • General Skill (per skill; from the Rules Cyclopedia)
  • Read Normal Languages (as thief)
  • Speak with Animals (as mystic)
  • Speak with Anyone (as mystic)

Weapon Mastery

Weapon Mastery is a proficiency system from the Rules Cyclopedia. If you don’t use Weapon Mastery, select the “Non-fighter” option.

  • Fighter (4 initial weapon slots, +1/3 lvls) = 600XP
  • Demi-human (Unlimited initial weapon slots, +1/4 lvls) = 200XP
  • Non-fighter (2 initial weapon slots, +1/3 lvls) = 0XP

Level Limit

  • Advancement to Name Level = -100XP
  • Advancement is Unlimited = 0XP

Level Advancement Table

Once your Base XP (bXP) is determined, you can complete the level advancement table as shown below. Use the Experience Point column most appropriate to the class type created:

Level XP (Cleric types) XP (Fighter/Thief types) XP (Magic-user types)
1 0 0 0
2 bXP x1 bXP x1 bXP x1
3 bXP x2 bXP x2 bXP x2
4 bXP x4 bXP x4 bXP x4
5 bXP x8 bXP x8 bXP x8
6 bXP x16* bXP x16* bXP x16*
7 6th-lvl x2 6th-lvl x2 6th-lvl x2
8 6th-lvl x4 6th-lvl x4 6th-lvl x4
9 6th-lvl x8 6th-lvl x8 6th-lvl x8
10 9th-lvl +100,000 9th-lvl +120,000 9th-lvl +150,000
11+ +100,000 per level +120,000 per level +150,000 per level
* Round to the nearest multiple of 5,000.

Final Words

All the calculations above are in the Building A More Perfect Class spreadsheet. Go to the “New Classes” section on the first tab and start filling in the values for each category using the drop-down menus. When you update all 10 categories, go to the second tab and enter the base XP value to create the Level Advancement Table up to 36th-level.

As always, suggestions and questions are welcome in the comments. If you’re feeling extra social, share your new classes, too–I love to see how others interpret and use this tool.

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10 thoughts on “Building a More Perfect Class

  1. Erin,

    A thought for you would be to add another column and have that be for the maximum spell/prayer levels. Then tweak the partial ones a bit to make the spreadsheet work. I love the article and want you to still fight for Classic D&D. I would be willing to try and help you with it if you want. I have a few other tweaks I thought you might like to consider as well.


    1. Hi Keith – I’m always interested in improving the material. Can you show me an example of how the max. spell levels column would look, or would this replace the current Spells category?

  2. I do have a few ideas which could work. If you could get ahold of me via email we could try to look at it that way. I liked the original article and I am impressed that you came back to it and found a way to make it better. I tinkered with the original a little and I am trying to see a way to make my idea work. Thank you for not taking offense as it was not my intent. Just to help improve it a bit.


  3. One suggestion…I’d change name level limit into two items:

    1. Name level with attack ranks: 0xp
    2. Name level without attack ranks: -100

    and then remove the demi-human fighting class. This will leave existing classes priced the same but make 36 level demi-humans more consistent in prices.

    1. Hi Thomas,

      Inherent spellcasting would be use of non-memorized spells, either at-will or to a daily limit, like a harpy’s charm, a cyclops’ curse, or a storm giant’s lightning bolt. None of the canonical classes have inherent spellcasting, but it’s noted here for those who want to include it as a class ability (e.g., a bard might cast the equivalent of charm once per day with his sweet lute).

      1. I actually used the older version of this to create a demi-human class with limited thief abilities, limited to 12th level, 1/2 M-U spell progression (using Illusionist spells from 1e/LLAEC), inherent spellcasting without the ability to learn new spells (except by leveling up and rolling randomly) and no scroll use. The Vulpen are a magical race of clever fox folk.

          1. Will do, I just have to copy it over from my notebook. I have a few other classes I’ve designed that I will revise to fit the guidelines as well.

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